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Bush and Cheney: How they Ruined America and the World

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發表於 2018-12-24 17:55:08 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-24 17:56 編輯

Bush’s destructive transformations of America:

In response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, George W. Bush shredded the US Constitution, trampled on the Bill of Rights, discarded the Geneva Conventions, and heaped scorn on the domestic torture statute… In response to the attacks, the Bush administration engineered and presided over the most sustained period of constitutional decay in our history.
- the Center for Constitutional Rights

shredded 粉碎銷毀(文件)

trampled 侵犯,無視(尊嚴)

the Bill of Rights (美國)《權利法案》

discarded 拋棄,扔掉

the Geneva Conventions 日內瓦公約(由世界大部分國家簽署,規定戰爭期間如何對待作戰和非作戰人士的條約)

heap sth on sb 對(某人)大加(讚揚、批評等)

scorn 輕視,鄙視

torture 拷打;拷問;折磨;虐待

statute 成文法;法令,法規

engineered (尤指爲自己的利益)密謀策劃,精心安排

preside over sth 掌管;主持(尤指正式會議或審判)

sustained 持續的,持久的

decay 腐蝕;衰敗,衰弱


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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-24 17:57:19 | 顯示全部樓層
How Bush wrecked the Middle East (1):

Prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Mr Peter Van Buren pointed out that

Libya was stable, ruled by the same strongman for 42 years; in Egypt, Hosni Mubarak had been in power since 1983; Syria had been run by the Assad family since 1971; Saddam Hussein had essentially been in charge of Iraq since 1969, formally becoming president in 1979; the Turks and Kurds had an uneasy but functional ceasefire; and Yemen was quiet enough, other than the terror attack on the USS Cole in 2000.

wrecked
破壞;毀壞

prior to sth 在…之前

strongman 強人;(尤指政界的)鐵腕人物

uneasy (局勢或情況)不穩定的,緊張的,令人不安的

ceasefire (通常指兩軍間的)停火協定
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-24 17:58:42 | 顯示全部樓層
How Bush wrecked the Middle East (2):

But today, in addition to the fact that Iraq has been virtually destroyed and Syria has become so violent that millions of people have emigrated, Libya is a failed state, bleeding mayhem into northern Africa; Egypt failed its Arab Spring test and relies on the United States to support its anti-democratic (as well as anti-Islamic fundamentalist) militarized government; and Yemen is a disastrously failed state.

virtually
幾乎;實際上;實質上

emigrated 移居外國;移民

failed state 失敗國家(被認為未能滿足和履行某一些作為主權政府應有的基本條件和責任的國家)

mayhem 混亂狀態

militarized 軍事化的;武裝起來的
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-24 17:59:55 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-24 18:01 編輯

The perceived destructiveness of the US government’s response to 9/11:

- “9/11 Used to Demonize Muslim World, Justify NSA Spying of US Citizens.”

- “Since 9/11, We’ve Had 4 Wars in the Middle East. They’ve All Been Disasters.”

- “9/11 Hurt America, But it Destroyed the Middle East.”

- “Yes, Bush Helped Create ISIS—and Set up the Middle East for a Generation of Chaos.”

perceived
察覺出的,注意到的,意識到的

destructiveness 破壞性

Demonize 使惡魔化,將…妖魔化

Justify 為…辯護;證明…正當(或有理、正確);是…的正當理由

NSA 美國國家安全局

Spying 搜集情報

ISIS 伊斯蘭國

Generation (時間跨度為23至30年左右的)一代,一輩

Chaos 混亂;無秩序狀態
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-24 18:01:44 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-25 13:49 編輯

The Afghanistan war was neither legal nor morally appropriate. (1)

On September 20, Bush gave the Taliban an ultimatum: “Deliver to United States authorities all the leaders of Al Qaeda who hide in your land.”

Explaining the Taliban’s position, CNN said:

Bin Laden himself has already denied he had anything to do with the 9/11 attacks, and Taliban officials repeatedly said he could not have been involved in the attacks.

However, Bush refused to supply evidence, saying “the demands were not open to negotiation or discussion.”

neither ... nor
既不…也不…,…和…都不

ultimatum 最後通牒

evidence 證據;證明
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-24 18:02:38 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-24 18:09 編輯

The Afghanistan war was neither legal nor morally appropriate. (2)

On September 23, Colin Powell said that he expected “in the near future” to put out “a document that will describe quite clearly the evidence that we have linking [bin Laden] to this attack.” But at a joint press conference with President Bush the next morning, Powell withdrew this pledge, on the grounds that “most of [the evidence] is classified.” However, the real reason for withdrawing the pledge was a “lack of solid information,” said investigative reporter Mr Seymour Hersh, citing officials from both the CIA and the Department of Justice.
- Professor David Ray Griffin

put sth out
發出(資訊)

press conference 記者招待會

pledge 誓言;諾言;保證

classified 機密的;保密的

solid 確定的;紮實的;可信賴的

citing 引用,引述
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-24 18:03:57 | 顯示全部樓層
The Afghanistan war was neither legal nor morally appropriate. (3)

The following week, British Prime Minister Tony Blair issued a document purportedly showing that “Osama Bin Laden and al-Qaeda, the terrorist network which he heads, planned and carried out the atrocities on 11 September 2001.” Blair’s report, however, began by saying: “This document does not purport to provide a prosecutable case against Osama Bin Laden in a court of law.” The BBC, then explained the reason for this caveat, saying: “There is no direct evidence in the public domain linking Osama Bin Laden to the 11 September attacks.”
- Professor David Ray Griffin

purportedly
聲稱地,謠傳地

atrocities 兇惡的行為,殘暴的行為

purport 聲稱,標榜

prosecute 起訴;檢舉

caveat (進一步行動前的)警告,告誡;限制條款

domain 領域,領地
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-24 18:05:24 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-25 13:48 編輯

The Afghanistan war was neither legal nor morally appropriate. (4)

But if the Bush administration did not have solid evidence, why did it claim, in giving the Taliban the ultimatum, to know that bin Laden was responsible?



After indicating that they had no certain knowledge that bin Laden was guilty, Bush and Cheney spoke as if they did.

guilty
有過失的,犯了罪的,有罪責的
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-24 18:06:12 | 顯示全部樓層
The Afghanistan war was neither legal nor morally appropriate. (5)

A month later, Bush was still refusing to provide evidence. After the US began bombing Afghanistan in October, the Taliban asked again for evidence, offering to turn bin Laden over if the United States would stop the bombing and provide evidence of his guilt. At this point, Bush claimed to know for sure that bin Laden was behind 9/11, saying: “There’s no need to discuss innocence or guilt. We know he’s guilty.” But he still did not provide the evidence on which this alleged knowledge was based.
- Professor David Ray Griffin

innocence
無罪

alleged 被說成的,(尤指在證據不足的情況下)被指控的
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-25 13:39:37 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-25 13:54 編輯

Was the Attack on Afghanistan Legal?

No, said well-known professor of International law Mr Marjorie Cohn. According to international law as codified in the UN Charter, disputes are to be brought to the UN Security Council, which alone may legally authorize the use of force.




However, here is what the resolution in question said:

[The Security Council expresses] its readiness to take all necessary steps to respond to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, and to combat all forms of terrorism, in accordance with its responsibilities under the Charter of the United Nations.

So the Security Council did not authorize the United States to do anything. It merely expressed its readiness to carry out its own responsibilities.
- Professor David Ray Griffin

well-known 著名的,眾所周知的

codify 把…編成法編纂
(法典;典條例等)

Charter 憲章,章程(由統治者或政府批准或要求制定,闡明公民、組織或社會團體的權利)

disputes (尤指勞資雙方或相鄰兩國之間的)爭執,爭端,糾紛

the Security Council (聯合國)安全理事會

authorize 批准,准許;授權,委託

resolution 決議;正式決定

sb/sth in question 正被談論的…,討論中的…

r
eadiness 願意,樂意;準備就緒

combat 與…戰鬥;與…作鬥爭;打擊;制止

in accordance with a rule, law, wish, etc. 依照規則(法律,意願等)



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