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樓主: 騰杰

Bush and Cheney: How they Ruined America and the World

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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-25 13:39:48 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-25 13:58 編輯

Was the Attack on Afghanistan Legal?

No, said well-known professor of International law Mr Marjorie Cohn. According to international law as codified in the UN Charter, disputes are to be brought to the UN Security Council, which alone may legally authorize the use of force.




However, here is what the resolution in question said:

[The Security Council expresses] its readiness to take all necessary steps to respond to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, and to combat all forms of terrorism, in accordance with its responsibilities under the Charter of the United Nations.

So the Security Council did not authorize the United States to do anything. It merely expressed its readiness to carry out its own responsibilities.
- Professor David Ray Griffin

well-known 著名的,眾所周知的

codify 把…編成法典;編纂(法典、條例等)

Charter 憲章,章程(由統治者或政府批准或要求制定,闡明公民、組織或社會團體的權利)

disputes (尤指勞資雙方或相鄰兩國之間的)爭執,爭端,糾紛

the Security Council (聯合國)安全理事會

authorize 批准,准許;授權,委託

resolution 決議;正式決定

sb/sth in question 正被談論的…,討論中的…

readiness 願意,樂意;準備就緒

combat 與…戰鬥;與…作鬥爭;打擊;制止

in accordance with a rule, law, wish, etc. 依照規則(法律,意願等)



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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-25 13:55:37 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-25 13:58 編輯

Was it morally appropriate to attack Afghanistan?

Some have argued that, legality aside, the Afghanistan war was morally justified.




However, the Afghan government was not involved in the attack. None of the men identified as hijackers were Afghans. And even Osama bin Laden was not an Afghan. Moreover, even if it were somehow relevant that bin Laden was living in Afghanistan in 2001, the United States, as we have seen, provided no evidence that he was responsible for the attacks, so there was no basis for the Taliban to hand him over to the Americans.
- Professor David Ray Griffin

legality
合法,合法性

justified 有正當理由的

hand sth/sb over 移交(控制權、責任等)


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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-25 14:22:51 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-25 14:24 編輯

Was it appropriate to respond to the attacks with a war?

Even if the war in Afghanistan was not justified, one might argue that it was appropriate to launch a war on terror. But a war could only have been appropriate if the attacks had been planned by another nation. In 2007, the UK government stopped speaking of the “war on terror,” and a few years later, the former head of M15 (the UK’s counterpart to the CIA) gave a good reason why: The 9/11 attacks were “a crime, not an act of war.”
- Professor David Ray Griffin

launch
啓動,推出,發

counterpart (與不同地方或組織的人或物)作用相同者,相對應者
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-25 15:20:42 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-25 15:22 編輯

Was the attack on Afghanistan justified by later evidence of bin Laden’s responsibility? (1)

One might argue that it was appropriate for Bush and Cheney to trust their intuition that bin Laden was guilty, because that was later proved to be true. However, the FBI’s “Most Wanted Terrorist” webpage on “Usama bin Laden”said he was responsible for bombings of two US embassies in 1998, but it never listed 9/11 as one of the terrorist acts for which he was wanted. When asked why not, the FBI’s chief of investigative publicity replied that it was “because the FBI has no hard evidence connecting Bin Laden to 9/11.”

intuition
直覺;直覺力

Wanted (因犯罪)被警方通緝的

listed 將…列成單子;把…列入名單

investigative 調查的;偵查的

publicity
宣傳活動;宣傳,推廣;關注

hard evidence 確鑿的證據

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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-25 15:22:54 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-25 15:28 編輯

Was the attack on Afghanistan justified by later evidence of bin Laden’s responsibility? (2)

It has been claimed that proof was no longer necessary because bin Laden himself later confessed in a videotape. But America’s leading academic expert on bin Laden, Professor Bruce Lawrence, called this tape “bogus,”adding that he knew people in the Department of Homeland Security, assigned to work on bin Laden full time, who “also know it’s bogus.”
- Professor David Ray Griffin


confessed 坦白;供認,招認;承認(錯誤或罪行)

leading 主要的;頂級的,尖端的

bogus 假的;假冒的,僞造的;非法的

Homeland Security (美國)國土安全部

assign sb to sth 指派(某人)做…
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-26 13:06:12 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-12-26 13:07 編輯

Disastrous Consequences

This illegal and immoral Afghanistan war has been harmful to both America and Afghanistan. But the harm has been much greater for Afghanistan.

The Bush-Cheney “liberation” turned out to be disastrous for the people of Afghanistan in many ways.

Disastrous
災難性的;極其糟糕的;極為失敗的

Consequences (常指不好或不利的)結果,後果

immoral 不道德的,道德敗壞的
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-26 13:07:45 | 顯示全部樓層
Afghan Deaths (1)

According to a widely quoted estimate from Brown University, a total of 450,000 Afghans were killed between 2001 and 2015, with 92,000 of the deaths (including fighters as well as civilians) from direct war violence, and the remainder coming from indirect causes (mainly deprivation).

widely
範圍廣地;廣泛地

quoted 引用,引述,援引

deprivation 缺失,缺乏,匱乏
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-26 13:09:51 | 顯示全部樓層
Afghan Deaths (2)

Marc Herold, professor of economic development at the University of New Hampshire, has said that all of the figures reported by the mainstream press are very low, with even the reports of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) counting only 40 to 70 percent of the deaths.

mainstream
(思維、思想或信念等)主流的

the press 報刊;報道;新聞界;記者,新聞工作者
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-26 13:11:39 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2019-1-1 15:30 編輯

Afghan Deaths (3)

Professor Gideon Polya, a retired biochemist in Melbourne, published a book in 2007 entitled Body Count: Global Avoidable Mortality Since 1950. In October 2011, on the 10th anniversary of the beginning of the Afghanistan War, Polya published an article estimating that there had been a total of 5.6 million war-related deaths—with “about 1.4 million violent deaths and 4.2 million non-violent avoidable deaths from Occupier-imposed deprivation,” with about 2.9 million of those deaths occurring to under-5 infants.
- Professor David Ray Griffin

entitle
給…命名,給…題名

Avoidable 可避免的

Mortality 死亡數字,死亡率

Anniversary 週年紀念;週年紀念日

war-related 與戰爭相關的

violent 暴力的;暴力引起的

impose 推行;強制實行
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 樓主| 發表於 2018-12-26 13:11:48 | 顯示全部樓層
本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2019-1-1 15:36 編輯

Spread the truth readily ...
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